High German Loanwords in English

 

Updated: 26 Mar 2000

 

 

Introduction:

 

This small collection of High German loans into English is based mainly on the items provided by Pfeffer/Cannon (1994) and Speake (1998). The background information has been taken mainly from Pfeffer and Serjeantson, but Jespersen has also been useful in this regard. This collection cannot be - nor indeed is - in any way comprehensive. I have merely collected those loans from High German which I personally consider to be either common, well-known, interesting or represent lexical items in various specialist fields. Many specialist terms and indeed a number of slightly more common words have not been included. To do proper justice to the High German influence on English would require much greater research and effort than is possible here. The interested reader who requires further and more detailed information is advised in the first instance to consult Pfeffer, whose book provides a very readable, methodical and apparently comprehensive treatment of HG loans in English. Dates have been taken from Pfeffer where possible, otherwise from Speake.

 

In general, I have not explained the German loans, since many are self-explanatory, others have no formal synonyms in English and still others would need more extensive explanation than the trouble would merit. In a few cases, for some of the more unusual terms or for those readers with slightly less German, I’ve added very brief explanations. This list generally assumes the reader is familiar with many more common German words.

 

In the majority of cases, German words are not calqued in English, i.e. they are loaned directly from the source language and their form is seldom changed from the original. Jespersen remarks that the forms Siebengebirge and Riesengebirge are much more commonly met with than the Seven Mountains or the Giant Mountains. While English swallows kindergarten whole, Danish and Norwegian calque it to børnehave and barnehage respectively. Obviously this apparent historical principle of generally borrowing German words in their original form rather limits the number and type of words that can be borrowed, without demanding new sounds or spelling conventions in English in order to accommodate them. There are many exceptions of course, e.g. loan-translation, foreworld,  handbook, breakthrough, war-lord, masterpiece, homesickness. Another feature of German loans into English, as will be seen from the examples just cited, is that they tend to require compound nouns formed (often from native elements) of the type which English is no longer as comfortable in creating as once was the case. We generally feel more comfortable with models based on the classical languages such as preface or manual, rather than items inspired by the Germanic idiom such as foreword or handbook. Although the competing terms are all current in modern English, the Germanic terms tend to be somewhat frowned upon as more colloquial or less learned by many users. They are simply more down to earth. Worth observing is that while many Latin or Greek derived terms cannot be broken down into smaller elements or lexemes, the Germanic compound nouns often can. The latter often have a kind of transparency to the English speaker which is rarely paralleled in our language’s innumerate loans from Greek, Latin and French.

 

Until the 1500s, the HG input in English was practically zero. Before then, the major West Germanic influence on the English vocabulary had been the quite considerable number of words loaned from Middle Low German and Middle Dutch. But in the late 1500s, many German miners were imported to work in English mines and the German contribution to English mineralogy terminology in particular has been extensive (e.g. feldspar, gneiss, quartz). This has been one of the most distinctive German contributions to the English vocabulary - the Germans at that time were skilled in mining and metal-working - but others include such fields as chemistry, psychology (Freud, Jung, Adler), philosophy (Kant, Nietzsche) and linguistics (Grimm, Bopp).

 

The dictionary section of Pfeffer and Cannon includes 5,380 loans from HG, although many are in specialist scientific fields, in particular, mineralogy, chemistry and psychology. The earliest of these loans is recorded from 1346, while the latest items are dated to 1990. 

 

The great majority of HG loans into English has occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries, and as far as I can tell, slightly more were loaned during the 1800s than the following century. The high point of German loans occurred in the period 1850-1900, according to Pfeffer and Cannon, during which time, the number of German imports averaged 35 items per annum (Pfeffer, xxii). Perhaps not surprisingly, the lexical influence of German on English has waned dramatically since 1945.

 

Pfeffer and Cannon’s excellent study has shown that Jespersen’s remark (p.143) “There are surprisingly few German loan-words in English” cannot be upheld, while the same author’s observation (p.143) that “very little can be inferred from them with regard to cultural relations, apart, perhaps, from some philosophical terms...” is a little closer to the truth. But even here, the study of Pfeffer and Cannon has shown that German has contributed much to the terminology of many important fields in English cultural life. It is especially the case in the sciences, however, that the German language has enriched English and in whose various constituent disciplines, if taken as whole, the Germans justly have a reputation for excellence. The work of Pfeffer and Cannon reveals that about 30% of German loans into English are from the fields of mineralogy and chemistry alone, while biology, geology and botany constitute a further 10% (Pfeffer, xxii). Of direct relevance for the studies presented on this site is the knowledge that German has contributed some 101 terms to the English vocabulary within linguistics, 73 within literature and 33 within mythology (Pfeffer, pp. 4-5).

 

In the vast majority of cases, German loans have added to the lexical resources available to English speakers, rather than replacing any already existing words (cf. the rather different situation regarding French, Latin and Greek imports into English). The total corpus collected by Pfeffer and Cannon would lead one to believe that the High German lexical contribution has been rather greater than many linguists were inclined to believe in the past. This is certainly the case if we are arguing purely on the total number of words borrowed. However, if we are basing our judgment on the size and importance of the German element in the everyday English vocabulary, the picture is rather different. In this case, the German element has been negligible and is in no way comparable to the huge impact that French, Old Norse, Latin and even Low German have had on the lexis of everyday colloquial English.

 

Notes:

 

a)      In a number of cases, a German noun is loaned directly into English with the capital letter retained and this is one indicator that reveals the word was, or is, still felt to be foreign in English, i.e. it is a Gastwort. Quite often this noun will later be re-spelt with a lower case initial letter, as is custom with all English nouns that have been fully assimilated. Sometimes, however, the noun will be spelt in English using lower case from the outset, and then later adopt a capital initial letter in accordance with the German practice, apparently to consciously affirm the German origin of the source word. In such cases, the earliest recorded appearance in English, irrespective of orthography is given.

 

b)      Loan-translations have the German source word given in italics, where known.

 

c)      Explanations and translations are generally taken from Pfeffer/Cannon.

 

 

 

i)                   German loans sorted by date

 

1400 and 1500s:

 

marzipan (1494); landgrave (1516) a German count; pfennig (1547); junker (1554) a German nobleman; burgher (1568); masterpiece (1579); Landtag (1591) now refers to the convening of the parliament in certain German states;

 

1600s:

 

hamster (1607); Wendish (1617); Schloss (1617) a German castle or manor house; sauerkraut (1617); quartz (1631); plunder (1632 - Thirty Years’ War); kobold (1635) a goblin or cave dwelling wight, especially in German folklore; zinc (1641); pumpernickel (1663); cobalt (1683); Fräulein (1689) a young unmarried (German) woman or girl; huntmaster (1691) < Jägermeister; krummhorn (1694) an obsolete wind reed instrument;

 

1700s:

 

seltzer (1741); shale (1747); nickel (1755); homesickness (1756) < Heimweh; gneiss (1757); feldspar (1757); Valkyrie (1768); Valhalla (1768); hornblende (1770); swindler (1774); Sturm und Drang (1776) a passionate German literary movement in the late 1700s (> Storm and Stress, 1855); jaeger, jäger (1776) "German rifleman"; noodle (1779); waltz (1781); meerschaum (1784) Sepiolite, a hydrated magnesium silicate or a pipe made from this (> sea-foam, 1837); Grenzbegriff (1787) a borderline concept; Totentanz (1789) the dance of death, Danse macabre; nix (1789) nothing; fatherland (1791-1823) < Vaterland; schema (1796); foreworld (1796) primeval or ancient world, < Vorwelt; hausfrau (1798);

 

1800s:

 

Vorstellung (1807) an idea, image or mental picture; kaiser (1807); dummkopf (1809); cookbook (1809) < Kuchbuch; kriegsspiel (1811) a type of military board-game; Plattdeutsch (1814); landsturm (1814) "reserve force, militia, levies"; handbook (1814) < Handbuch; landwehr (1815) "army reserve";

Naturphilosophie (1817); schnapps (1818); poodle (1820); Walpurgis Night (1822); ritter (1824) a knight or member of the lower German nobility;

pretzel (1824); living room (1825) < Wohnzimmer; glockenspiel (1825); Indo-Germanic (1826); Weltliteratur (1827); semester (1827); war game (1828) < Kriegsspiel; alpenstock (1829) a long staff with a metal point used in mountain climbing; standpoint (1829) < Standpunkt; doppelganger (1830); swan song (1831) < Schwanengesang; Germanist (1831); gasthof (1832) a German hotel or country inn; nix (1833) a bathing spirit in German folklore; Wissenschaft (1834) knowledge, learning, scholarship, science; gasthaus (1834) a German inn or tavern; Middle English (1836); Gelehrte (1836) a scholar; yodel (1838); protein (1838); paraffin (1838); Low German (1838) < Plattdeutsch; Stadthaus (1839) a German town hall; mark (1839); dachshund (1840); Nachlass (1842) unpublished posthumous literary works of an author; foreword (1842) < Vorwort; Fach (1842); zollverein (1843) customs union; bergschrund (1843); umlaut (1844); kraut (1845); folklore (1846) < Volkskunde; Ding an sich (1846) Thing-in-itself; Dasein (1846) existence; an sich (1846); prosit (1846); Sehnsucht (1847) yearning or wistful longing (> longing, 1955); zeitgeist (1848); Schinken (1848); poltergeist (1848); katzenjammer (1849) hangover; ablaut (1849); zither (1850); Wirtschaft (1850) domestic economy, housekeeping; Bund (1850) federation or association, especially political; Vaterland (1852); Schadenfreude (1852) enjoyment of others’ misfortunes; Lied (1852); kindergarten (1852); gemütlich (1852); lager (1853); kuchen (1854) a name for several varieties of coffee cake; schnitzel (1854); Schmelz (1854); Völkerwanderung (1855); liverwurst (1855); Lebenslust (1855) joie d’vivre; war-lord (1856) < Kriegsherr; blutwurst (1856); Anschaung (1856) sensory intuition; Ewigkeit (1857); Volkslied (1858); unberufen (1858); word-lore (1861) morphology and word-formation < Wortlehre; edelweiss (1862); Lehrjahre (1865) an informal term of apprenticeship; rinderpest (1865), > cattle pest (1866); rucksack (1866); wiener (1867); Reichstag (1867) the lower German national parliamentary chamber; Weltanschauung (1868) world-view; liebling (1868); kirsch (1869); i-umlaut (1870); Weltstadt (1870-99); Märchen (1871) a fairy tale or folk-tale; Trinkhalle (1873) room in a spa where the water can be drunk; soundlaw (1874) < Lautgesetz; loanword (1874) < Lehnwort; spectrometer (1874); Weltschmerz (1875); überhaupt (1875) in general, considered as a whole; ersatz (1875); vorspiel (1876) prelude or overture; singspiel (1876); Minnelied (1876) a love song or lay; liebchen (1876); leitmotif (1876); Kulturgeschichte (1876); Grübelsucht (1876) an obsessive disorder in which even basic facts are questioned; frankfurter (1877); delicatessen (1877); Nachschlag (1879); rückumlaut (late 1800s?) > unmutation; affricate (1880); anlaut (1881) the initial sound of a word or syllable; auslaut (1882); breaking (1883) < Brechung; folk etymology (1883); hamburger (1884); Wein, Wieb und Gesang (1885); und so weiter (1885); offprint (1885) < Abdruck; erbswurst (1885); Fraktur (1886); Gesellschaft (1887) a society based on the rationally conceived duties of its constituents; Gemeinschaft (1887) a society based on community, kinship or affection; backfisch (1888) a fish too small to be boiled but large enough to be baked; speech/linguistic island (1888) < Sprachinsel; sauerbraten (1889) a dish of marinated roasted beef (> sour beef (1935));  wienerwurst (1889); seminar (1889); hinterland (1890); gestalt (1890); giro (1890); wunderkind (1891); Kunstgeschichte (1892) art history; klabberjass (1892); Gutnish (1892) pertaining to the Swedish island of Gotland; its language; gemütlichkeit (1892); volksfest (1893); strudel (1893); horst (1893); pleasure-pain (1894) < Lust-Unlust; diesel (1894); schwa (1895);

kaput (1895); spiel (1896); Festschrift (1898); Weinstube (1899) a small German saloon; Kunstforscher (1899) art historian;

 

1900s:

 

Achtung (1900s); Erlebnis (1900-29) the mind’s identification with its own emotions and feelings; gallows humour (1901) < Galgenhumor; wanderlust (1902); klippe (1902); Weltpolitik (1903); zugswang (1904) a situation in chess where any move would result in disadvantage but the player is compelled to do so; einfühlung (1904) empathy (> empathy, 1904); lebensraum (1905) space considered necessary for the health and development of a nation (> living room, 1934); hochgeboren (1905); felsenmeer (1905) a boulder field; Stollen (1906); Schweinerei (1906); Drang nach Osten (1906) the imperialistic foreign policy of Germany re. eastern Europe in the 1930s; Drang (1906); Wehmut (1907) sadness, melancholy, nostalgia; quatsch (1907); Ursprache (1908); Stimmung (1909) mood, atmosphere, ambiance; Götterdämmerung (1909); Bildungsroman (1910) a novel charting the maturation or mental and emotional development of its protagonist; schmerz (1911); verboten (1912); Galgenhumor (1912); doctorand (1912); Neanderthaler (1913); U-boat (1913); realpolitik (1914); glutwolke (1914) nuée ardente; gesundheit (1914); kamerad (1914) used by German soldiers in WWI as a cry of surrender; Schrecklichkeit (1915) a policy of horror or terrorism, especially in war (> frightfulness (1914)); strafe (1915); echt (1916); Doberman (1917); breakthrough (1918) < Durchbruch; Spielraum (1921) the range of variables considered in projecting the likelihood of an hypothesis; Reich (1921); spurlos (1922) without a trace, from sight; Formgeschichte (1923); nicht wahr (1924); isogloss (1925); kitsch (1926); langlauf (1927) cross-country skiing; Neue Sachlichkeit (1929) a new pragmatic realism in the arts developed in Germany in the 1920s; knackwurst (1929); Schwerpunkt (1930-69) focus, emphasis; quark (1930-69); Sitzfleisch (1930) staying-power, determination, perseverence; Mischsprache (1930) a hybrid or mixed language; bierhaus (1930); Schriftsprache (1931); Urtext (1932) an original text, the source text or earliest version (urtext appears in 1959); malerisch (1933); loan translation (1933) < Lehnübersetzung; abseil (1933); Weltbild (1934) view of life, world-view; Verstehen (1934); Urheimat (1934); Gestapo (1934); Führer (1934); Wehrmacht (1935) the collective name for the German armed forces from 1929-1945; Rechtsstaat (1935); Luftwaffe (1935); hausmaler (1935); Volksgeist (1936) the spirit characterizing the thought or feeling of a nation or people; lederhosen (1936); Kunstprosa (1936) a highly stylised literary prose; Lebensform (1937) any human activity that involves values of any kind; a style of living; Kunsthistoriker (1937) art historian; autobahn (1937); Untergang (1938); Umgangssprache (1938); U-bahn (1938); völkisch (1939) populist, nationalist or racist; Stammbaum (1939); blitzkrieg (1939); Sieg Heil (1940); panzer (1940); Herrenvolk (1940) the Master race in Nazi ideology; blitz (1940); zwischenzug (1941) an interim or temporising move in chess; Künstlerroman (1941) a Bildungsroman about an artist; snorkel (1947); Sicherheitsdienst (1947) the security division of the SS of Nazi Germany; Kulturkreis (1948); Schimpfwort (1949); Stammbaumtheorie (1954) a linguistic pedigree theory of languages (> family-tree theory, 1933); Mitsein (1955) the concept of a person’s being in its relationship with others; Quellenforschung (1958); vorlaufer (1961) a skiier who sets the benchmark before a skiing competition begins by completing the course in question (> forerunner, 1949); spritzer (1961); Ostpolitik (1961); Lebenswelt (1962) the world of direct, first-hand experience; glitch (1962); Weisswurst (1963); zeitgeber (1964); Untermensch (1964); Umwelt (1964); Kunstforschung (1966) art history; über alles (1967); Mittelstand (1970-1990) something between extremes of size, middling size range; Westpolitik (1970); Mitbestimmung (1970) the right of worker participation in corporate management; Gastarbeiter (1970); Tafelwein (1972); Qualitätswein (1972); hinterlander (1973); Gott im Himmel (1980) good heavens!; du lieber Gott (1980) dear God!; lager (1987) concentration camp; Rottweiler (1989);

 

Undated but from the period 1850-1960:

 

Rückbildung > back-formation;

Lehnwort > loanword;

Gastwort a foreign word which retains its foreign spelling, prounciation and meaning in another language, e.g. as in passé, diva and leitmotiv in English;

Fremdwort a word that has undergone partial assimilation to the borrowing language, e.g. as in garage in English;

 

 

ii)        German loans sorted by subject

 

 

SCIENCES

 

Wissenschaft (1834) knowledge, learning, scholarship, science; Fach (1842); Spielraum (1921) the range of variables considered in projecting the likelihood of an hypothesis;

 

Mineralogy, Geology and Metallurgy

 

quartz (1631); zinc (1641); cobalt (1683); shale (1747); nickel (1755); gneiss (1757); feldspar (1757); hornblende (1770); bergschrund (1843); horst (1893); klippe (1902); felsenmeer (1905) a boulder field;

 

 

Physics, Chemistry and Biology

 

seltzer (1741); meerschaum (1784) Sepiolite, a hydrated magnesium silicate or a pipe made from this (> sea-foam, 1837); protein (1838); paraffin (1838); rinderpest (1865), > cattle pest (1866); spectrometer (1874); diesel (1894); glutwolke (1914) nuée ardente; zeitgeber (1964); Umwelt (1964);

 

 

 

ARTS AND HUMANITIES

 

General Humanities

 

masterpiece (1579); Festschrift (1898); Neue Sachlichkeit (1929) a new pragmatic realism in the arts developed in Germany in the 1920s; malerisch (1933);

 

 

Music, Sport and Games

 

krummhorn (1694) an obsolete wind reed instrument; waltz (1781); glockenspiel (1825); alpenstock (1829) a long staff with a metal point used in mountain climbing; yodel (1838); zither (1850); Lied (1852); Volkslied (1858); vorspiel (1876) prelude or overture; singspiel (1876); Minnelied (1876) a love song or lay; Nachschlag (1879); klabberjass (1892); zugswang (1904) a situation in chess where any move would result in disadvantage but the player is compelled to do so; langlauf (1927) cross-country skiing; zwischenzug (1941) an interim or temporising move in chess; snorkel (1947); vorlaufer (1961) a skiier who sets the benchmark before a skiing competition begins by completing the course in question (> forerunner, 1949);

 

 

Philosophy

 

Grenzbegriff (1787) a borderline concept; Vorstellung (1807) an idea, image or mental picture; Naturphilosophie (1817); Ding an sich (1846) Thing-in-itself; Dasein (1846) existence; an sich (1846); Anschaung (1856) sensory intuition; Weltanschauung (1868) world-view; Mitsein (1955) the concept of a person’s being in its relationship with others; Lebenswelt (1962) the world of direct, first-hand experience;

 

 

Psychology

 

Sehnsucht (1847) yearning or wistful longing (> longing, 1955); Schadenfreude (1852) enjoyment of others’ misfortunes; Lebenslust (1855) joie d’vivre; Weltschmerz (1875); Grübelsucht (1876) an obsessive disorder in which even basic facts are questioned; gestalt (1890); pleasure-pain (1894) < Lust-Unlust; Erlebnis (1900-29) the mind’s identification with its own emotions and feelings; gallows humour (1901) < Galgenhumor; einfühlung (1904) empathy (> empathy, 1904); lebensraum (1905) space considered necessary for the health and development of a nation (> living room, 1934); Wehmut (1907) sadness, melancholy, nostalgia; schmerz (1911); Galgenhumor (1912);

 

 

Literature, Mythology and Folklore

 

kobold (1635) a goblin or cave dwelling wight, especially in German folklore; Valkyrie (1768); Valhalla (1768); Sturm und Drang (1776) a passionate German literary movement in the late 1700s (> Storm and Stress, 1855); Totentanz (1789) the dance of death, Danse macabre; Walpurgis Night (1822); Weltliteratur (1827); swan song (1831) < Schwanengesang; Germanist (1831); nix (1833) a bathing spirit in German folklore; Nachlass (1842) unpublished posthumous literary works of an author; foreword (1842) < Vorwort; folklore (1846) < Volkskunde; poltergeist (1848); Märchen (1871) a fairy tale or folk-tale; leitmotif (1876); Fraktur (1886); Götterdämmerung (1909); Bildungsroman (1910) a novel charting the maturation or mental and emotional development of its protagonist; Formgeschichte (1923); Kunstprosa (1936) a highly stylised literary prose; Künstlerroman (1941) a Bildungsroman about an artist; Quellenforschung (1958);

 

 

Linguistics

 

Wendish (1617); Plattdeutsch (1814); Indo-Germanic (1826); Middle English (1836); Low German (1838) < Plattdeutsch; umlaut (1844); ablaut (1849); word-lore (1861) morphology and word-formation < Wortlehre; i-umlaut (1870); soundlaw (1874) < Lautgesetz; loanword (1874) < Lehnwort; rückumlaut (late 1800s?) > unmutation; affricate (1880); anlaut (1881) the initial sound of a word or syllable; auslaut (1882); breaking (1883) < Brechung; folk etymology (1883); speech/linguistic island (1888) < Sprachinsel; Gutnish (1892) pertaining to the Swedish island of Gotland; its language; schwa (1895); Ursprache (1908); isogloss (1925); Mischsprache (1930) a hybrid or mixed language; Schriftsprache (1931); Urtext (1932) an original text, the source text or earliest version (urtext appears in 1959); loan translation (1933) < Lehnübersetzung; Umgangssprache (1938); Stammbaum (1939); Schimpfwort (1949); Stammbaumtheorie (1954) a linguistic pedigree theory of languages (> family-tree theory, 1933); Rückbildung (1850-1960) > back-formation; Lehnwort (1850-1960) > loanword; Gastwort (1850-1960) a foreign word which retains its foreign spelling, prounciation and meaning in another language, e.g. as in passé, diva and leitmotiv in English; Fremdwort (1850-1960) a word that has undergone partial assimilation to the borrowing language, e.g. as in garage in English;

 

 

 

 

History, Anthropology and Archaeology

 

foreworld (1796) primeval or ancient world, < Vorwelt; Indo-Germanic (1826); Völkerwanderung (1855); Kulturgeschichte (1876); Kunstgeschichte (1892) art history; Kunstforscher (1899) art historian; Neanderthaler (1913); Urheimat (1934); Kunsthistoriker (1937) art historian; Kunstforschung (1966) art history;

 

 

Sociology

 

Gesellschaft (1887) a society based on the rationally conceived duties of its constituents; Gemeinschaft (1887) a society based on community, kinship or affection; Weltbild (1934) view of life, world-view; Verstehen (1934); Volksgeist (1936) the spirit characterizing the thought or feeling of a nation or people; Lebensform (1937) any human activity that involves values of any kind; a style of living; völkisch (1939) populist, nationalist or racist; Kulturkreis (1948); Untermensch (1964);

 

 

Politics

 

landgrave (1516) a German count; ); junker (1554) a German nobleman; burgher (1568); Landtag (1591) now refers to the convening of the parliament in certain German states; huntmaster (1691) < Jägermeister; fatherland (1791-1823) < Vaterland; kaiser (1807); ritter (1824) a knight or member of the lower German nobility; Stadthaus (1839) a German town hall; zollverein (1843) customs union; Bund (1850) federation or association, especially political; Vaterland (1852); Reichstag (1867) the lower German national parliamentary chamber; Weltstadt (1870-99); hinterland (1890); Weltpolitik (1903); hochgeboren (1905); Drang nach Osten (1906) the imperialistic foreign policy of Germany re. eastern Europe in the 1930s; realpolitik (1914); Reich (1921); Führer (1934); Rechtsstaat (1935); Herrenvolk (1940) the Master race in Nazi ideology; Ostpolitik (1961); Westpolitik (1970); Mitbestimmung (1970) the right of worker participation in corporate management; Gastarbeiter (1970); lager (1987) concentration camp;

 

 

 

 

 

Military

 

plunder (1632 - Thirty Years’ War); jaeger, jäger (1776) "German rifleman"; kriegsspiel (1811) a type of military board-game; landsturm (1814) "reserve force, militia, levies"; landwehr (1815) "army reserve"; war game (1828) < Kriegsspiel; war-lord (1856) < Kriegsherr; U-boat (1913); kamerad (1914) used by German soldiers in WWI as a cry of surrender; Schrecklichkeit (1915) a policy of horror or terrorism, especially in war (> frightfulness (1914)); strafe (1915); Gestapo (1934); Wehrmacht (1935) the collective name for the German armed forces from 1929-1945; Luftwaffe (1935); blitzkrieg (1939); Sieg Heil (1940); panzer (1940); blitz (1940); Sicherheitsdienst (1947) the security division of the SS of Nazi Germany;

 

 

Food and Drink

 

marzipan (1494); sauerkraut (1617); pumpernickel (1663); noodle (1779); cookbook (1809); schnapps (1818); pretzel (1824); kraut (1845); Schinken (1848); lager (1853); kuchen (1854) a name for several varieties of coffee cake; schnitzel (1854); liverwurst (1855); blutwurst (1856); wiener (1867); kirsch (1869); frankfurter (1877); delicatessen (1877); hamburger (1884); erbswurst (1885); backfisch (1888) a fish too small to be boiled but large enough to be baked; sauerbraten (1889) a dish of marinated roasted beef (> sour beef (1935)); wienerwurst (1889); strudel (1893); Stollen (1906); knackwurst (1929); quark (1930-69); spritzer (1961); Weisswurst (1963); Tafelwein (1972); Qualitätswein (1972);

 

 

Everyday and General

 

pfennig (1547); hamster (1607); Schloss (1617) a German castle or manor house; ); Fräulein (1689) a young unmarried (German) woman or girl; homesickness (1756) < Heimweh; swindler (1774); nix (1789) nothing; schema (1796); hausfrau (1798); dummkopf (1809); handbook (1814) < Handbuch; poodle (1820); living room (1825) < Wohnzimmer; semester (1827); standpoint (1829) < Standpunkt; doppelganger (1830); gasthof (1832) a German hotel or country inn; gasthaus (1834) a German inn or tavern; Gelehrte (1836) a scholar; mark (1839); dachshund (1840); prosit (1846); zeitgeist (1848); katzenjammer (1849) hangover; Wirtschaft (1850) domestic economy, housekeeping; kindergarten (1852); gemütlich (1852); Schmelz (1854); Ewigkeit (1857); unberufen (1858); edelweiss (1862); Lehrjahre (1865) an informal term of apprenticeship; rucksack (1866); liebling (1868); Trinkhalle (1873) room in a spa where the water can be drunk; überhaupt (1875) in general, considered as a whole; ersatz (1875); liebchen (1876); Wein, Wieb und Gesang (1885); und so weiter (1885); offprint (1885) < Abdruck; seminar (1889); giro (1890); wunderkind (1891); gemütlichkeit (1892); volksfest (1893); spiel (1896); Weinstube (1899) a small German saloon; Achtung (1900s); wanderlust (1902); Schweinerei (1906); Drang (1906); quatsch (1907); Stimmung (1909) mood, atmosphere, ambiance; verboten (1912); doctorand (1912); gesundheit (1914); echt (1916); Doberman (1917); breakthrough (1918) < Durchbruch; spurlos (1922) without a trace, from sight; nicht wahr (1924); kitsch (1926); Schwerpunkt (1930-69) focus, emphasis; Sitzfleisch (1930) staying-power, determination, perseverence; bierhaus (1930); abseil (1933); hausmaler (1935); lederhosen (1936); autobahn (1937); Untergang (1938); U-bahn (1938); glitch (1962); über alles (1967); Mittelstand (1970-1990) something between extremes of size, middling size range; hinterlander (1973); Gott im Himmel (1980) good heavens!; du lieber Gott (1980) dear God!; Rottweiler (1989);

 

 

 

*sources:

 

 

Barber, Charles: The English Language: A Historical Introduction. (Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993;

 

Collins English Dictionary (Millennium Edition), HarperCollins Publishers, Glasgow, 1998;

 

Freeborn, Dennis: From Old English to Standard English. 2nd revised and enlarged edition. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1998;

 

Hoad, T.F. (ed.): The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996;

 

Hughes, Geoffrey: A History of English Words. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2000;

 

Jespersen, Otto: Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1956;

 

Pfeffer, J.A & Cannon, G.: German Loanwords in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994;

 

Serjeantson, M.S.: A History of Foreign Words in English, London, 1935;

 

Speake, J. (ed.): The Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

 

 

 

© Edward Sproston, 2011.  E-mail the author






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